The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films are an American series of superhero films, based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. The films have been in production since 2007, and in that time Marvel Studios has produced 22 films, with 10 more in various stages of production. The series collectively has grossed over $22.55 billion at the global box office, making it the highest-grossing film franchise of all time.Kevin Feige has produced every film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Avi Arad served as a producer on the two 2008 releases, Gale Anne Hurd also produced Incredible Hulk and Amy Pascal produced the Spider-Man films. The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Many of the actors, including Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Chris Hemsworth, Samuel L. Jackson, and Scarlett Johansson signed contracts to star in numerous films.The first film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe was Iron Man (2008), which was distributed by Paramount Pictures. The Incredible Hulk (2008). Walt Disney Studios Motion Picturesbegan distributing the films with the 2012 crossover film The Avengers, which concluded Phase One of the franchise. Phase Two includes Iron Man 3 (2013), Thor: The Dark World (2013), Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), and Ant-Man (2015).Captain America: Civil War (2016) is the first film in the franchise’s Phase Three, and is followed by Doctor Strange (2016), Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Black Panther (2018), and Avengers: Infinity War (2018), with Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018), Captain Marvel (2019), and an untitled Avengers film (2019) still scheduled for the phase. Sony Pictures distributes the Spider-Man films, which they continue to own, finance, and have final creative control over.A sequel to Spider-Man: Homecoming has been scheduled for 2019, alongside Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3 in 2020, with an additional two untitled films also scheduled for 2020, three untitled films scheduled for 2021, and three untitled films scheduled for 2022. Feige has indicated that Marvel may abandon the phase grouping after the conclusion of Phase Three.